Lower Limb Dysfunction and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in 16-18 Year Olds

A Danish study published in the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association in 2011 investigated the association between lower limb dysfunction and patellofemoral pain syndrome in 16-18 year olds.

Mølgaard et al. looked at this topic due to the highly multifactorial nature of the condition and their goal of identifying common causative factors.

The single-blind case-control study identified 16-18 year old subjects with verified patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Examination points for the purpose of study were navicular drop and drift, dorsiflexion, and hip rotation.

Examiners were blinded to knee pain and non-knee pain subjects. Comparable statistics were found in symptomatic and control groups in regards to gender, age, height and weight.

Overpronation as identified by navicular drop and medial drift was found to be significantly greater in the symptomatic patellofemoral pain syndrome group versus control.

Likewise, ankle dorsiflexion was significantly larger in the symptomatic group, whilst hip rotation study showed similar results in both groups.

This study provides evidence that treatment of overpronation in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients is valid.

Given the age group studied, this research also raises new questions regarding long-term effects of overpronation in young people; this is a topic for further study.

Meanwhile, one can feel confident in including foot and ankle evaluation in all patellofemoral pain syndrome examinations.


  1. María Bravo-Aguilar, Gabriel Gijón-Noguerón, Alejandro Luque-Suarez, and Javier Abian-Vicen (2016) The Influence of Running on Foot Posture and In-Shoe Plantar Pressures. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association: March 2016, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp. 109-115.

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