The Relationship Between Foot Posture, Body Composition and Flexibility in Children

Hawke et al. recruited 30 healthy children between the ages of 7 and 15.

Clinical data related to Body Mass Index, left Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI, Beighton scale score, Lower Limb Assessment Scale score (LLAS) and left ankle lunge angle, were collected for the study.

The criteria for FPI-6 involved talar head palpation, curves above and below the lateral malleolus, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, bulge in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch and abduction/adduction of the forefoot on the rearfoot.

The purpose of the Beighton scale was to identify the presence of joint hypermobility at the wrist, fifth metacarpal phalangeal joint, elbow, knee and the lumbo-sacral spine.

The LLAS was used to examine the joint hypermobility of the lower limb.

Using the lunge test, the weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of the left limb was assessed.

The data revealed that a higher FPI was associated with a higher Beighton score while a greater lunge angle was linked to higher Beighton and LLAS scores.

A higher Beighton score was also found to be linked to a higher LLAS score.

No statistically significant association was found between FPI with BMI, ankle lunge, LLAS or age.

Children with a flatter foot posture showed greater lower limb and whole-body flexibility.

A higher BMI had no association with a more pronated foot type and there was no relationship found between age and foot posture.


  1. Fiona Hawke, Keith Rome and Angela Margaret Evans (2016) The relationship between foot posture, body mass, age and ankle, lower-limb and whole-body flexibility in healthy children aged 7 to 15 years. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research: April 27, 2016, Vol. 9, No. 14, doi: 10.1186/s13047-016-0144-7

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