3-4 days free worldwide delivery

Calf Muscle Activity Alteration with Foot Orthoses Insertion During Walking Measured By Fine-wire Electromyography

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics May 29, 2017


The purpose of this study was to determine the tibialis posterior (TP), peroneus longus (PL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle activity change resulting from orthotic insertion during the walking stance phase by using a fine-wire and a surface electromyography (EMG).

Sixteen healthy male students participated in this study; participants who had injuries or surgical intervention for the lower extremities in the past year or had a neurological problem were excluded.

Bipolar fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were employed for measurement of TP and FDL muscle activity.

Gait tasks were performed under three conditions – barefoot, with footwear and with footwear plus orthoses.

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more

Prefabricated orthoses were employed in this study because the authors considered it more clinically meaningful to see if easy and low-cost prefabricated orthoses could change the muscle activity pattern of the calf muscles.

The orthoses had three arch supports for the medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal and transverse arches; these arch supports functioned to prevent from lowering the arches.

The force plate and EMG system were synchronised for simultaneous data collection; in each condition, participants were instructed to walk at comfortable speed on the walkway and to step on the force plate with the right foot during gait trials.

The findings of the study revealed that the orthoses significantly reduced muscle activity level of TP in midstance and propulsion phases during gait.

In contrast, muscle activity level of the PL and FDL remained the same for all conditions in each phase.

Reduction of TP muscle activity might be beneficial for patients who have excessive TP contraction related injuries such as medial tibial stress syndrome.

Further research is required to clarify the clinical effect of orthoses in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome.

Copyright 2017 MASS4D® All rights reserved. 

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more


  1. Akuzawa, H., Imai, A., Iizuka, S., Matsunaga, N., Kaneoka, K. (2016) Calf Muscle Activity Alteration With Foot Orthoses Insertion During Walking Measured By Fine-wire Electromyography. The Journal of Physical Therapy Science: December 2016, Vol. 28, No. 12 pp. 3458-3462

Leave a comment

Comments will be approved before showing up.

Also in Clinicians Blog

Foot and ankle history and clinical examination: A guide to everyday practice

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics August 12, 2018

This review summarises the keys points in taking a full history and performing a systematic clinical examination for patients with foot and ankle problem.

Read More

A comparison of running kinetics in children with and without genu varus: A cross sectional study

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics August 07, 2018

The aims of the present study were to examine differences in three dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at preferred speed in boys with genu varus compared to age-matched healthy controls.

Read More

Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics July 29, 2018

The aim of this study was the analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with Down Syndrome (DS) versus their age- and gender-matched peers without the condition.

Read More