3-4 days free worldwide delivery

Facet Joint Syndrome

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics January 25, 2017

Facet Joint Syndrome

Facet joints or zygapophysial joints are formed as a result of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebral bodies in the posterolateral vertebral column from the cervical to the lumbar spine.

The main function of these joints is the restriction of spinal flexion, extension and axial rotation in segmental movements whilst providing support and stability to the overall spinal column.

A review published in the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering by Jaumard et al. provides a comprehensive overview of the anatomy of the facet joints in addition to the mechanical loading response of the soft and hard tissues that these joints are composed of.

The bony articular pillars of the lateral mass are aligned in the form of two posterolateral columns that provide mechanical support during axial loading along the spine, in conjunction with the anterior column of vertebral bodies that are connected by intervertebral discs.


Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more


The articular surfaces of the facet joints are covered with an avascular layer of hyaline cartilage which varies in thickness to provide for the frictionless motion between adjacent vertebra whilst absorbing compressive loads from shearing and axial forces to the spinal column.

Facet Joint Syndrome is a broader term that encompasses any dysfunction or abnormality in the facet joints that causes chronic pain in the lumbar spine, which intensifies upon rest and improves by motion, particularly in the mornings.

A gradual degeneration of the tissues in the facet joints occurs over time leading to altered mechanical functionality with significant neurologic implications; this mainly stems from a loss of the cushioning cartilage surface layer which increases frictional stresses during vertebral motion and causes inflammatory cytokines to leak into the intraspinal space.

The onset of conditions such as osteoarthritis or spondylolisthesis can facilitate the formation of synovial cysts that cause acute radicular pain because of compression of the nerve root or the thecal sac.

In its acute phase, treatment modalities for facet joint syndrome should focus on relief from pain and discomfort by following a passive to active care routine that consists of rest as needed, cryotherapy and mobilisation exercises.

Postural correction forms an important component of any long-term pain relief programme for facet joint syndrome because of the reduction of any extra stress on the injured/affected joints in addition to the treatment of lumbar lordosis.

With improvements in gait mechanics and subsequent improvements in sagittal plane blockages, chronic pain associated with spinal conditions can be alleviated with significant corrections in foot posture and the optimal re-alignment of the musculoskeletal system.

Copyright 2017 MASS4D® All rights reserved. 


Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more


Related Links

The Influence of Foot Posture on the Lumbar Spine
Treatment of Low Back Pain with Orthotics
Knee OA

References:

  1. Jaumard V. N., Welch C. W., Winkelstein A. B. (2011) Spinal Facet Joint Biomechanics and Mechanotransduction in Normal, Injury and Degenerative Conditions. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering: July 2011, Vol. 133, No. 7, doi:  10.1115/1.4004493.
  2. Malanga A. G., Memmo P., Young C. C., Perron D. A. (2016) Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome Treatment & Management. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/
  3. Boos N., Aebi M. (2008) Spinal Disorders: Fundamentals of Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer Science & Business Media.

Leave a comment

Comments will be approved before showing up.


Also in Clinicians Blog

Stress Fractures in Leg Length Discrepancy
Stress Fractures in Leg Length Discrepancy

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics September 16, 2018

Stress fractures in the lower extremity result from excessive submaximal stress that is repeatedly placed on the region; this leads to accumulation of micro-damage in the region, disrupting bone homogeneity and causing fractures.

Read More

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics September 09, 2018

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome refers to a multifactorial pathogenesis that leads to anterior knee pain, most often triggered by increased stress on the patellofemoral joint or cartilaginous lesions on the patella or distal femur.

Read More

Foot Injuries In Rock Climbing
Foot Injuries In Rock Climbing

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics September 02, 2018

The presence of extreme forces and environmental hazards during rock climbing can make an individual susceptible to a number of injuries of the lower extremity. This is why it is essential to take preventative measures before undertaking competitive or recreational rock climbing.

Read More