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Foot Orthoses

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics November 01, 2016


This study aimed to examine the known effects of foot orthoses (FOs) on lower-limb kinematics.

FOs have been differentiated into two: custom-fabricated FOs (CFOs) and prefabricated FOs (PFOs).

Research evidence linked to the influence of FOs on rearfoot inversion/eversion, dorsiflexion/plantar-flexion and tibial rotation, was investigated further. FOs are prescribed to modify the frontal plane movement in the rearfoot to correct foot misalignments.

Kitaoka et al reported a significant decrease in rearfoot eversion by using one type of PFOs and a trend toward significance (P = .051) with another type.

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Other studies have examined the effects of PFO on rearfoot eversion during static stance.

A significant decrease in rearfoot eversion was observed in three of the six PFOs tested.

Pascual Huerta et al suggested that CFO response varies according to the level of pronation of the wearer.

The contradicting effects of CFOs and PFOs on rearfoot eversion could be the result of different foot types or orthoses designs.

Stacoff et al reported nonsystematic CFO effects across their patients; although a significant decrease in total internal tibial rotation was found.

Based on a number of similar studies, the common effect of FOs have been reported as: a decrease in rearfoot eversion, a decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, an increase in ankle plantarflexion, and a decrease in internal tibial rotation.

The effects of FOs on sagittal plane movement of the ankle, are a byproduct of the elevated heel in the shoe caused by the additional material under the heel.

It is strongly recommended that researchers clearly state the following: type of FO manufacturing process and material used, footwear design and mechanical properties and patient’s characteristics.

Copyright 2016 MASS4D® All rights reserved.

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  1. Thierry Larose Chevalier, Nachiappan Chockalingam (2011) Foot Orthoses. A Review Focusing on Kinematics. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association: July/August 2011

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